KRATON AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
Many of Yogyakarta’s many attractions are in the city center. The cultural and political heart of the city is the Sultan of Yogya – Kraton. Surrounded by walls, the city has 25,000 inhabitants and has its own market, batik and silver enterprises, schools and mosques. The palace inhabited by the Sultan was built in 1755 and houses many architectural works of Java culture. Bangsal Kencana (Golden Pavilion) in central Kraton and the museum with rich artifacts are worth seeing. Also in the interior pavilion, every day of the week, artistic performances such as gamelan, wayang golek, Javanez songs and poets, wayang kulit (dummy) and classical dance are exhibited (it is included in the entrance ticket).
Taman Sari: A complex of palaces, secret rooms, pools and water canals built between 1758 and 1765 for the Sultan and his relatives. The ruins of the complex, which was greatly damaged due to the Diponegoro Java War and the 1865 earthquake, are worth seeing.
The best way to visit Yogyakarta city center is to walk. You may feel as if you are lost in the history pages while you are walking around, you can give a coffee break on the bohemian streets that smells of art.
Other attractions in the city include the popular Batik city center Pasar Beringharjo, the silver and filigree production district of Kota Gede, the Affandi Museum, the Pasar Ngasem (bird market), the Sasana Wiratama Museum, the rice culture and the Java Cultural Center Tembi.
Cambodia’s Angkor Wat, like Myanmar’s Bagan, Borobudur is the center of Buddhism in Indonesia that must be seen in Southeast Asia. The Borobudur Buddhist Temple, 42 km northwest of Yogyakarta, has been exposed to the eruptions of the Merapi Volcano in 2750 years, terrorist attacks and a massive earthquake in 2006, but has managed to survive.
B.C. Borobudur “Vihara Buddha Uhr ob, which was built by the Sailendra Dynasty between 750-850, means ede Buddhist Monastery on Top 750 in Sanskrit. As a result of the changes in power in the region and abandoned to its fate, the temple was revisited by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles who ruled Java in 1815, cleared it and began to regain its old importance. Restoration work was initiated by the Dutch in the beginning of the 20th century, and it was accelerated with the support of UNESCO between 1973-1983. In 1991, Borobudur was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The Borobudur Buddhist Temple was constructed from 2 million stone blocks built in the form of a symmetrical stupa. There are four separate staircases leading to the top of the temple, sitting on a 118-meter floor. Hundreds of Buddha statues and thousands of decorated panels are available in the entire temple. When viewed from above, it is seen that the temple is in the form of a giant 3D tantric mandala. This monumental temple symbolizes the Nirvavaya spiral outlet, which is a Buddhist paradise, starting from the daily life of the existing cosmos in the stone. Many Buddhists come here to fulfill the pilgrimage and walk a 5 km around the temple.
The best hours to visit and feel the temple are between 4.30-7.30 in the morning. It is even impossible to walk from time to time in the temple that has been flooded by thousands of people during the day. You can also access the Karmawibhangga Archaeological Museum by a ticket at the entrance to the temple. There are 4000 original stones, various carvings and photographs in the museum.
Prambanan, the Hindu temple area, 17 km northeast of Yogyakarta, is the most magnificent collection of Hindu culture in Java. All of the temples in the region, BC. During the 8-10th century, the Hindu Rakai was built during the Pikatan period. The temples, which had been heavily damaged and plundered by the great earthquake in the 16th century, started to be cleaned in 1885, were restored in 1937 and were included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List in 1991. The restoration works in the temple area, which was damaged again by the earthquake in 2006, are continuing.
There are 3 main temples in the region. The most spectacular of them is the 47-meter-long Roro Jonggrang Temple in the middle of the complex. The two temples north and south of the temple dedicated to Shiva are dedicated to Vishnu and Brahma. In the temples of Shiva and Brahma, there are reliefs depicting the epic stories of the ramayana epic. The Prambanan Temples complex has been organizing an outdoor dance show called beri Ramayana Ballet “since 1960. Sewu Temple, Bubrah Temple and Lumbung Temple are other temples that can be visited in the region.
It is possible to visit the temples by walking and renting a bicycle.
SOLO – SANGIRAN
Solo is one of the least westernized, relatively conservative cities of the island of Java. For solo travelers, Sangiran is an intermediate stop for going to the primitive human zone.
Located in the UNESCO Cultural Heritage list in 1996, Sangiran is located in the Solo River Valley, 16 km north of Solo. The excavation area covering an area of 45 km² is divided into two separate sections as Sragen and Karanganyar. Saringar, which has a great importance geologically, became one of the most important places in the world in terms of human history with the beginning of archaeological excavations in 1934. Ralph von Koenigswald started his studies in the region in 1934 and found the fossils of the first human ancestor ”homo erectus“, or ”Java Man ve. a museum was opened in which the fossil and other historical pieces were exhibited. The museum has 3 separate lounges. In the first hall, there are three-dimensional models of people and animals belonging to 1 million years ago in the region. In the second hall, materials from fossils found in Sangiran can be seen. In the third hall, the three-dimensional view of the Sangiran Region was portrayed. In the background, the Lawu Volcano, the people and animals that lived in the past 1 million years, are exhibited. With its volcanic terrain, Dieng offers exceptional views to travelers; the volcanoes where the fire is felt, the mineral lakes, the steaming craters “eng The Place of the Gods“ Dieng Plateau is also home to some of the oldest Hindu architectural monuments in Java. In the region, 8-9. YY. There are more than 400 temples which are known to belong to a day. Starting from the village of Dieng, there will be enough for one tour including Telaga Warna (Color Lake), Candi Bima (Bima Temple), Kawah Sikidang (Sikidang Crater), Candi Gatutkaca and Arjuna Temple Complex.